The Zhaimaoliang site is located on an oval-shaped hill-top close to Fangya Village, Anya County, Yulin City, Shaanxi Province. The site covers some 30.000 m2. The rescue excavation has been done in two years from 2014 to 2015 jointly by the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology and the Yulin local authorities of cultural relics and archaeology.
Among the most important results of the excavations are 109 house foundations which are built in regular pattern and preserved in good conditions. The excavation shows that the houses are arranged in groups and all doorways are opened towards the lower part of the hillside. Therefore, the general layout of this settlement is in a way of “gathered but not oriented towards to the center”.
The houses are composed of front and rear chambers which are linked straightly. The front chambers are normally square-shaped, in semi-subterranean style. Pillar holes show that the chamber there supposedly was covered with a roof. The rear chambers are all in cave-dwelling style and apparently had dome-shaped ceilings. Most have cooking place on the ground in the center. Some have slate-piled ground stoves found close to the wall.
Well-preserved passages from front chamber to the rear are exceptionally important finds. The pass of cave-dwelling F12 is 0.7 m high, 0.8 m wide and faced with a thick layer of straw-and-mud mixture painted on the raw-soil wall. A shallow groove is found below the door pass. It might be related to the threshold.
14 ash pits are found in the site. Numbers of pottery wares, bone items and stone tools are excavated.
The Zhaimaoliang site is the most complete and well-preserved prehistoric stone-wall enclosed settlement ever excavated in the north of China. It provides very important archaeological materials to the discussion on the layout of settlement, family scale and social structure of the early age of Longshan Culture.SUN Zhouyong, SHAO Jing, KANG Ningwu, HAO Zhiguo, DAI Feng
- Left: door pass of cave-dwelling F12 (after excavation, looking from inside to outside)
- Right: excavated pottery wares
- Left: distant view of Zhaimaoliang site
- Center: structure of front and rear chambers of house foundation
- Right: Door pass and threshold groove of cave-dwelling F12 (before excavation, looking from outside to inside)
- Left: southern stone-wall enclosure of the site
- Right: house foundations excavated in 2014
For further information in Chinese visit:
- Zhongguo Wenwubao 中国文物报 06. 11. 2015, page 8